Francis Bradley
Financial Reporting Accountant at Equals Money
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Francis' Key Takeaways:

  • Gearing refers to the share of a company’s capital that is financed through debt, compared to equity. It’s a measure to what extent the company relies on debt to fund investment and operations.
  • A highly geared company could be perceived as a financial risk as it suggests increased exposure to fiscal policies during economic downturns i.e. fluctuating interest rates.
  • Gearing is used to evaluate the financial risk of a company’s ability to manage debt obligations. Calculated as: (Total Debt / Total Equity) x 100.

The concept of gearing plays a pivotal role in understanding a company's financial health and strategy within the world of corporate finance. "Gearing" refers to the ratio of a company's debt compared to its equity, providing insights into the financial structure and risk profile of an organisation.

Understanding Gearing

Gearing is a metric that compares a company's borrowed funds to its equity, offering a glimpse into how a company finances its operations. It's a critical indicator of financial leverage, demonstrating how much of an organisation's operations are funded by debt versus shareholders' equity.

A higher gearing ratio suggests a company is more reliant on debt to fuel its growth, while not inherently negative, carries certain implications for risk and return.

The Gearing Ratio Formula

To calculate the gearing ratio, one divides the company's total debt by its shareholders' equity.

The total debt encompasses both short-term and long-term liabilities, providing a comprehensive view of the company's indebtedness. Shareholders' equity, on the other hand, represents the residual interest in the assets of the company after deducting liabilities. This calculation yields a percentage, offering a quantifiable measure of a company's leverage.

Interpreting Gearing Levels

A low gearing ratio indicates a company is primarily financed through equity, suggesting a conservative approach to leverage and potentially lower financial risk.

Although, a high gearing ratio signifies a greater reliance on debt, which can amplify returns but also increases the company's vulnerability to market volatility and interest rate fluctuations. The interpretation of what constitutes a 'high' or 'low' gearing ratio can vary by industry, as capital-intensive sectors may naturally operate with higher levels of debt.

Impact on Shareholder Value

One crucial aspect of gearing that often gets overlooked is its impact on shareholder value. High gearing ratios can lead to increased financial risk, which may result in higher expected returns for shareholders due to the higher risk they are undertaking.

However, this relationship is not always so straight-forward and linear, as excessive risk can also lead to a decrease in shareholder value if the company faces financial distress or struggles to meet its obligations.

Implications of High Gearing

Companies with high gearing ratios face a nuanced set of challenges and opportunities. As mentioned, leveraging debt can accelerate growth and enhance shareholder returns, it also increases the company's exposure to financial risk.

Risk of Financial Distress

Highly geared companies are more susceptible to economic downturns and adverse market conditions. The obligation to meet interest payments and repay debt can strain cash flows, especially if revenue falls short of expectations. This heightened risk of financial distress necessitates prudent financial management and strategic planning.

Impact on Cost of Capital

The cost of capital is a critical factor in investment decisions and valuation. A high gearing ratio can lead to an increased cost of debt, as lenders perceive the company as "riskier" and demand higher interest rates to compensate. This escalation in borrowing costs can erode profitability and deter potential investment.


Understanding the nuances of gearing ratios and their implications is crucial for business leaders and financial professionals. While high gearing can offer opportunities for accelerated growth, it also demands careful consideration, risk management, and strategic foresight.

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